In keeping with the objectives outlined in its 2012 Technology Innovation Roadmap, EPA aims to encourage technological innovation by supporting the development of clusters focused on environmental technology. This report reviews existing literature on industry clusters by Porter, Smilor, Gibson, Kozmetsky, Phillips, and others to summarize the prerequisites for the successful creation of a technology innovation cluster and promote the practices that will sustain it.
Based on the literature, clusters consist of seven sectors: 1) established companies, 2) start-up businesses, 3) universities or other research institutions, 4) support groups or champions, and 5) state, 6) local, and 7) federal government. The report examines how various prerequisites and success factors apply to each of these sectors. For example, a region must have scientific preeminence within the cluster industry, new technology development, attraction of major technology companies, and the creation of start-up technology companies in order for the development of a cluster to be possible.